Only after winter season 2021 in Antarctica we informed about the coldest winter season in South Pole station in all-time history – in the Amundsen Scott (South Pole) weather station, the average temperature of Winter season 2021 (April 2021 – September 2021) reached only -61,0°C / -78°F /https://mkweather.com/the-south-pole-with-the-coldest-winter-in-history-average-temperature-april-september-half-year-only-610c//.
This relatively shocking information contributed to the character of the all year 2021, which ended in the South Pole as the 3rd coldest in all-time history, with an average yearly temperature of only -50,5°C.
Colder were only 2 years in 80. years, with average temperatures -51,0°C and -50,6°C. A similar average temperature appeared around the year 2000, yet.
After a 15-year break, the yearly temperature average reached a lower value than -50,0°C.
Extremely cold conditions in Antarctica are a work of climate change, mainly a positive phase of Antarctic Oscillation / positive phase of Southern Annular Oscillation (AAO+, SAM+).
Whether the southern polar vortex is strong or weak depends on cycles linked with AAO and SAM.
This phenomenon is associated with the ozone layer above Antarctica, but too with a changing climate in the region – some parts of the continent (mainly East Antarctica) are showing a cooling 40-years trend, thanks to the re-freezing Southern Ocean. /https://mkweather.com/east-antarctica-not-warming-past-4-decadescooling-trend/; https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/06/210623141711.htm/
Sweet water from the Antarctic glacier freezes around the continent, with a result of increasing albedo of the region and subsequent cooling tendencies.
AAO+ phases are after the year 2000 much more frequent such as AAO-, with increasing trend, which means, that coldwaves in the next decades in Antarctica should be even stronger and for some species possible fights for survival.
Antarctica is therefore during climate change behaving totally oppositely such as the rest of the world (excluding Global Warming Holes) – expeditions across the continent will have to prepare to changed conditions.
Source: watchers on Twitter – Stefano Di Battista Twitter; International Exchange Site