After the coldest winter half-year in all-time history in South Pole /https://mkweather.com/the-south-pole-with-the-coldest-winter-in-history-average-temperature-april-september-half-year-only-610c// and extremely strong late-season frosts /https://mkweather.com/antarctica-very-close-to-temperature-records-vostok-757c-dome-fuji-740c// came the next extremely cold – almost summer, period to parts of Antarctica.
Just in the region, where very cold Summer 2021/2022 according to our Summer 2021/2022 forecast for Antarctica is forecasted /https://mkweather.com/summer-2021-2022-forecast-for-antarctica//, in Concordia station, only -52,1°C was on 21. November measured.
It´s extremely low temperature and only 9 days before December – a month, when never has been colder in Antarctica than -52,0°C.
Although, after 25. November, the continent is again very warm, climate change should bring the next severe frosts during next months and years.
Such we mentioned in the previous articles, extremely cold conditions in Antarctica are a work of climate change, mainly a positive phase of Antarctic Oscillation / positive phase of Southern Annular Oscillation (AAO+, SAM+).
Whether the southern polar vortex is strong or weak depends on cycles linked with AAO and SAM.
This phenomenon is associated with the ozone layer above Antarctica, but too with a changing climate in the region – some parts of the continent (mainly East Antarctica) are showing a cooling 40-years trend, thanks to the re-freezing Southern Ocean.
Sweet water from the Antarctic glacier freezes around the continent, with a result of increasing albedo of the region and subsequent cooling tendencies.
On the contrary, surprisingly extreme coldwaves above the continents of the Southern Hemisphere (South America, South Africa, Australia, and Oceania) are associated mainly with opposite, AAO- / SAM- (negative phase of AAO / SAM), when the polar vortex is more destabilized and Antarctic fronts and cyclones hit southern parts of the continent more frequently.
Such we should notice at the latest update of AAO index, almost all Autumn it was moving in positive values and similar trends are possible during Summer 2021/2022 and the next seasons.
To colder conditions in Antarcitca in 2021 is contributing cold La Nina pattern, which is bringing mainly colder Southern Hemisphere than usual, too.